BankBryanCave.com

Bank Bryan Cave

Bank Regulations

Main Content

Fraudster Beware: Your Scheme Could be a Federal Crime if it Involves a Bank

Normally, a scheme to defraud another individual would be a state crime, prosecuted and sentenced at the state level (leaving aside use of U.S. mail or wires). To be convicted of the state crime of fraud usually requires proof of some combination of a false statement or representation and an actual intent to defraud.

On December 12, 2016, in a remarkably unpretentious opinion by Justice Breyer, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Shaw v. United States, U.S., No. 15-5991, resolved a circuit split by ruling that such a scheme can also constitute federal bank fraud, even if there was intent only to defraud the individual, not the bank itself.

The case stemmed from Shaw’s successful efforts to defraud a bank customer of more than $300,000. Shaw was convicted of violating 18 U.S.C. § 1344(1) which makes it a federal crime to “knowingly execut[e] a scheme . . . (1) to defraud a financial institution.” Shaw argued that to prove fraud it is necessary to show intent to defraud and he had no intent to defraud the bank – and, in fact, the bank did not lose any money. The Supreme Court affirmed a 9th Circuit opinion that no such proof was necessary to establish the federal crime of bank fraud, on the ground that a bank had a property interest in the use of the money deposited by its customers, even if the bank ultimately suffers no financial loss.

Read more about the broader impact on criminal law enforcement on BryanCave.com.

Read More

To Deposit or Not to Deposit: a Question for Fintech Charters

The fintech industry has justifiably greeted the OCC’s announcement of a national fintech charter with optimism. But one area where we have seen significant confusion is the possibility of the fintech charter being granted without deposit insurance, and the implications thereof.

Background.  On December 2, 2016, OCC Comptroller Thomas Curry announced that the OCC is planning to take applications from fintech companies wishing to obtain a special purpose national bank charter.  These banks would be national banks with the same privileges and obligations as traditional full-service national banks, but with specialized business plans and that may or may not choose to have deposit taking authority.

In his remarks, Comptroller Curry expressed his excitement about the great potential to expand financial inclusion and reach unbanked and underserved populations.  At the same time, clearly recognizing that there are some industry players that are worried about new sources of competition from fintech banks, or that these new banks might otherwise have unfair advantages, Curry took great pains to seek to alleviate those concerns in his remarks and in the OCC’s white paper on the proposal.

Curry acknowledged that it will be difficult for the agency to determine the requirements to charter a fintech bank because of the “diversity of approach” among fintech companies. He noted that, for example, a payments model would be different than a marketplace lending one. However, he said that the OCC is a “firm believer in tailored innovation” and has the existing framework to evaluate these issues in the chartering process.  Consistent with existing OCC regulation, the white paper states that a special purpose bank that conducts activities other than fiduciary activities must conduct at least one of the following three core banking functions: receiving deposits, paying checks, or lending money.

Read More

Starting a New Bank

Starting a New Bank

December 5, 2016

Authored by: Jonathan Hightower

piggybankOn November 29, 2016, the FDIC, as part of its Community Banking Initiative, held an outreach meeting in Atlanta.  While the FDIC has indicated that it will publish a handbook regarding applications for deposit insurance in the coming weeks (which we’ll also summarize), we thought it made sense to provide a few highlights from that meeting:

Mechanics.  The mechanics of the chartering process are the same as before.

Business Plans.  As expected, there will be greater scrutiny on business plans, making sure that banks stick to their business plans post-opening, and (not expressly stated but as translated by me) ensuring that the results of the bank’s business plan do not deviate greatly from the original projections (i.e., providing for limited ability to take advantage of natural growth in the new bank’s markets or lines of business during the first three years of operations if not reflected in projections).  Approvals to deviate from one’s business plan will not be granted under most circumstances.

Read More

Reviewing Third Party Vendor Service Contracts

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAManaging third party vendor relationships has always been an important function in banks. More recently it has become a hot topic for state and federal financial bank regulators.

As a result, we have compiled our Seven Part Guide on reviewing third party vendor service contracts into one article.  A checklist for reviewing third party vendor contracts is included in the article, and also available separately.

The analysis covers typical elements that should be found in any third party vendor contract, including provisions on the nature of services to be provided, the location where the word is to be performed, breach and termination, as well as provisions related to the potential outbreak of zombies.

Reviewing Third Party Vendor Service Contracts

Checklist for Vendor Service Contracts

Read More

12 Questions You Need to Answer Before Starting a New Bank

With paths recently being cleared from a regulatory perspective and the consolidation in the market, we’re hoping to see a pickup in de novo applications (and one that is far greater than the five applications the FDIC has indicated it has received for all of 2015). Because of the recent history of difficulty starting new banks and the extremely limited number of applications this year, we imagine many of the qualified candidates are hesitant to take the first steps. We’d like to make the process easier for you.

In his article, “Thinking of Starting a New Bank? Answer These Questions First,” which was published in The Banking Law Journal today, my partner, Jonathan Hightower (@hightowerbanks), covers twelve questions that organizing groups and individuals should answer as they begin a venture toward a de novo bank.

Please call any member of our Financial Institutions team if you’d like to start talking about the prospect of organizing a new bank, or if your further down the road and would like our guidance with your application – we’re happy to help.

Read More

Federal Rules Target Student Bank Accounts

As previously discussed on BankBryanCave.com, new Department of Education regulations will impact the terms and conditions of bank accounts that institutions of higher education and postsecondary vocational institutions may offer to students to receive disbursements of Title IV Higher Education Act funds. While the regulations apply directly to colleges, many banks and third-party servicers will need to change their products, services and practices if they want to contract with colleges to offer accounts to students.

The DOE rules require covered colleges to ensure that student account terms are in the best financial interest of students, present Title IV fund disbursement and account options to the student in a fact-based and neutral manner, and ensure that students have access to an appropriate number of surcharge-free ATMs. The rules also prohibit many account fees and impose ongoing monitoring obligations on colleges to ensure that student accounts meet all requirements of the rules.

The CFPB’s new prepaid account rules will further regulate accounts offered to students by imposing Regulation E protections on those prepaid accounts, limiting overdrafts, and highly regulating other credit features on student prepaid accounts. CFPB enforcement actions against colleges relating to consumer financial products and services remind us that even colleges can be subject to their jurisdiction and enforcement efforts.

On November 18, 2016 at 1:00pm EST, Bryan Cave LLP partner, John ReVeal, will be conducting a webinar with Lorman Education Services to summarize the new DOE rules and the key CFPB prepaid account rules as they relate to student accounts.  With John as a faculty member, we are able to offer a 50% discount on the registration fee.  Click here for more information, here for the brochure of the webinar, and here to register.

Read More

Supreme Court to Address Whether Collection of Time-Barred Debts Violate FDCPA

Our colleagues at The Bankruptcy Cave, Bryan Cave’s Bankruptcy & Restructuring Blog, recently published a blog post on the Supreme Court agreeing to to hear the issue of whether a debt collector that buys old, charged off debt which is beyond the statute of limitations violations the Fair Debt Collection practices Act when it files a proof of claim on that debt in a Chapter 13 bankruptcy (which they all do, as no one has an incentive to object to the claim, and they often collect far more on the debt than what they paid).

[On October 11, 2016,] the Supreme Court granted certiorari on an issue that (a) is pretty important in the world of consumer debt collection, and (b) makes some folks pretty darn furious. The issue is this:  if you file a proof of claim in a bankruptcy case, and you know such claim is barred by the applicable statute of limitations, are you committing a “misleading” or “unfair” practice under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA)?

Read more on The Bankruptcy Cave for further insights on the competing interests at play, and how the Court may ultimately rule.  And if you haven’t seen John Oliver’s take on the practice of buying uncollectible medical debt, the post contains a link to the video.

Read More

Part 7 of Reviewing Third Party Vendor Service Contracts, a Seven Part Guide

This is part 7 of a Seven Part Guide to reviewing vendor contracts. Part 1 can be found here, and other parts can be found here.

Indemnification. Indemnification provisions in a third party services contract can be hotly contested. There is no question that banks should include indemnification clauses that specify the extent to which the bank will be protected from claims arising out of the failure of the vendor to perform, including failure of the vendor to obtain any necessary intellectual property licenses. Not surprisingly, they can be one of the most difficult provisions to reach an agreement on.

In its simplest terms, indemnification constitutes an agreement to allocate certain risks of loss among the parties. It is analogous to a guaranty but just like a guaranty, the fact that you have one does not insure a party that they will in fact be protected from loss. An indemnification from a company that has little in the way of assets is no different than a guaranty from someone who has very little net worth. It may have some psychological value but may be worthless from a practical standpoint. Indemnification provisions can be drafted so tightly that they provide little protection and they can be made subject to limitations to the point that the protection offered is illusory.

Read More

Part 6 of Reviewing Third Party Vendor Service Contracts, a Seven Part Guide

This is part 6 of a Seven Part Guide to reviewing vendor contracts. Part 1 can be found here, and other parts can be found here.

Ownership of Trademarks, Copyrights, Patents and Other Trade secrets, Source Code escrow Agreements. Typically, each party should own its pre-existing materials and derivative works thereof and materials developed by the parties or their contractors individually and outside of the contract, and each party should provide the other with licenses to its materials necessary to receive or provide the services during the term.  The contract should include intellectual property provisions that clearly define each party’s intellectual property rights for their pre-existing materials and materials developed as part of the contract.

Does the vendor currently own or have the right to use all of the patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc., needed to provide the services under the contract or are they using intellectual property assets owned by the bank? If the contract involves the use of software purchased from a third party which needs to be customized, does the vendor or the bank have the legal rights to do that?  The contract should address who will own any intellectual property created by the vendor as a direct result of the contract. Oftentimes, but not always, that will be the bank.

In contracts where the vendor is providing or using software in delivering the services, issues may arise over ownership and the right to use the software. Banks will generally want the vendor to represent that the vendor has full use of the software and that it is providing the bank with a non-exclusive right to use it. Usually the vendor will be required to indemnify the bank in the event a third party asserts a claim that the bank’s use of the software was improper.  If a successful claim of infringement is made, the bank may want to either obligate the vendor to obtain alternative software to be able to continue providing the services or be able to terminate the contract immediately. As a practical matter, if a successful infringement claim is made, the vendor may simply need to obtain a license from the other party in order to continue providing the software to the bank.

Read More

Part 5 of Reviewing Third Party Vendor Service Contracts, a Seven Part Guide

This is part 5 of a Seven Part Guide to reviewing vendor contracts. Part 1 can be found here, and other parts can be found here.

Vendor Notice Requirements

Business -Strategic Changes. There are several categories of events the bank will want to be notified about.  The first involves things like significant strategic business changes, such as mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, divestitures, or other business activities that could affect the activities involved. In certain instances the bank may want the ability to terminate the contract if the vendor merges with another company or if there is a change in control. Similar to a loan transaction, the bank has “underwritten” the vendor. Bank officers have has met the vendor’s senior management and are comfortable with the general direction of its business. A merger or change of control may change the strategic direction of the vendor and the bank wants to make sure it knows who it is doing business with.

Business Events-Corporate Changes. The contract should address notification to the bank before making significant changes to the contracted activities, including acquisition, subcontracting, off-shoring, management or key personnel changes, or implementing new or revised policies, processes, and information technology. Related provisions in the contract would be sections that without bank consent would prohibit the assignment of the contract; changes in the listed locations of where work is being performed and the use of subcontractors not previously approved by the bank.

Business Events-adverse changes to business operations. This category requires the prompt notification of financial difficulty, catastrophic events, and significant incidents such as information breaches, data loss, service or system interruptions, compliance lapses, enforcement actions, or other regulatory actions. The bank should already have a contingency plan in the event the vendor goes out of business but a timely notification requirement helps to insures that the bank will have adequate time to put the contingency plan into motion.

Business Continuity. The contract should address the issue of what happens if the vendor’s business is affected by natural disasters, human error, or intentional attacks. The contract should define the vendor’s business continuity and disaster recovery capabilities and obligations to enable vendor to continue delivery of the services in the event of a disaster or other service interruption affecting a location from where the services are provided.  Force majeure events should not excuse vendor from performing the business continuity/disaster recovery services. The contract should include the vendor’s disaster recovery plan defining the processes followed by vendor during a disaster including backing up and otherwise protecting programs, data, and equipment, and for maintaining current and sound business resumption and contingency plans. A contract may include provisions—in the event of the third party’s bankruptcy, business failure, or business interruption—that allow the bank to transfer the bank’s accounts or activities to another third party without penalty. Ensure that the contract requires the third party to provide the bank with operating procedures to be carried out in the event business resumption and disaster recovery plans are implemented. Include specific time frames for business resumption and recovery that meet the bank’s requirements, and when appropriate, regulatory requirements. Depending on the critical nature of the serve being provided, the bank may also want to consider stipulating whether and how often the bank and the vendor will jointly practice business resumption and disaster recovery plans.

Read More
The attorneys of Bryan Cave LLP make this site available to you only for the educational purposes of imparting general information and a general understanding of the law. This site does not offer specific legal advice. Your use of this site does not create an attorney-client relationship between you and Bryan Cave LLP or any of its attorneys. Do not use this site as a substitute for specific legal advice from a licensed attorney. Much of the information on this site is based upon preliminary discussions in the absence of definitive advice or policy statements and therefore may change as soon as more definitive advice is available. Please review our full disclaimer.